Оптимізація інвестицій у підготовку моряків


  • Anatoliy Kholodenko Одеський національний морський університет, Одеса, Україна https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7626-5820
  • Alina Gontar Одеський національний морський університет, Одеса, Україна
  • Yuliana Shabatura Одеський національний морський університет, Одеса, Україна
Ключові слова: особливості продукції вишів, ринок праці, рівень зарплати, ставка податку

Анотація

Maritime transport provides more than 80 % of the world's international trade, so it is actively developing with the growth of production and economic connections between countries. On the other hand, the work of seafarers is quite difficult, associated with long-term separation from homes and risks, and therefore is not particularly popular among workers in developed countries, where high salaries can be obtained on shore.

Thus, it is precisely for the population of developing countries that the labor market of seafarers is quite attractive, since the salaries within these countries are significantly inferior to the salaries of seafarers, in addition, such countries are characterized by a lack of jobs in the domestic labor market.

At the same time, it should be noted that the unskilled labor market of seafarers (ordinary) is oversaturated (thanks to Asian countries), while the market for highly skilled labor of seafarers (officers) is scarce, where the salary is much higher, but the appropriate education is required.

It is here that the advantages of Ukraine as a country with a fairly high general level of population and certain maritime traditions and at the same time a low level of employment and especially wages within the country, which creates the attractiveness of maritime work for domestic workers can be revealed. We can even say that an important export potential of Ukraine is precisely the work of domestic qualified specialists (in particular, seafarers in connection with the loss of a significant part of the domestic fleet) abroad.

In order to implement these advantages, to expand the training of seafarers (officers), it is necessary to develop the maritime education network of Ukraine, to substantiate the corresponding investment projects.

The first fundamental feature of the products produced by the higher (qualified specialists) from ordinary products is that the manufacturer of ordinary products disposes of it himself what part of the manufactured products to sell and at what price. The state, which prepares qualified personnel, does not dispose of its products specialists themselves decide whether to work in the acquired specialty, depending on the amount of salary, tax rate, etc. (production has its own opinion).

The second fundamental feature of products produced by higher education (qualified specialists) from ordinary products is that ordinary products are sold on the market only once (for products of long-term consumption, their resale is possible, but already on another secondary market). On the seamen's labor market, specialists offer themselves regularly, the offer is formed not only by newly graduated specialists, but also by graduates of previous years (production accumulates over time), so it is necessary to build a dynamic model.

Taking into account these features, dynamic two- and three- factor optimization models of investments in the training of seafarers, taking into account their further behavior on the labor market, were built and analyzed, optimal values of the relevant indicators were found – tuition fees, number of students, educational investments, seafarers' wages

Біографії авторів

Anatoliy Kholodenko, Одеський національний морський університет, Одеса, Україна

д.е.н., професор кафедри

«Підприємництво та туризм»

Alina Gontar, Одеський національний морський університет, Одеса, Україна

студентка магістратури спеціальності

«Підприємництво, торгівля та біржова діяльність»

Yuliana Shabatura, Одеський національний морський університет, Одеса, Україна

студентка магістратури спеціальності

«Підприємництво, торгівля та біржова діяльність»

Посилання

1. Sharp, W., Alexander, G., Bailey, J. (1995) Investments. Prentice Hall International, Inc.
2. Bierman, H., Smidt, S. (1992) Economic Analysis of Investment Projects. Macmillan Publishing Company.
3. Stopford, M. (2009) Maritime economics, London: Routledge.
4. Cullinane, K. (2021) Maritime Economics: Organizational Structures, International Encyclopedia of Transportation, Elsevier, Pages 436-442, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102671-7.10082-X.
5. Lai, X., Tao, Y., Wang, F., Zou, Z. (2019) Sustainability investment in maritime supply chain with risk behavior and information sharing / International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 218, Pages 16-29, ISSN 0925-5273, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2019.02.021.
6. Skålnes, J., Fagerholt, K., Pantuso, G., Wang, X. (2020) Risk control in maritime shipping investments, Omega, Volume 96, 102087, ISSN 0305-0483, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2019.07.003.
7. Shi, X., Jiang, H., Li, H., Xu, D. (2020) Maritime cluster research: Evolutionary classification and future development, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 133, Pages 237-254, ISSN 0965-8564, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2020.01.015.
8. Stavroulakis, P., Papadimitriou, S., Tsioumas, V., Koliousis, I., Riza, E., Kontolatou, E. (2020) Strategic competitiveness in maritime clusters, Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 341-348, ISSN 2213-624X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cstp.2019.10.008.
9. Yang, D., Li, Ch., Li L., Lai, K., Lun, V. (2022) Maritime cluster relatedness and policy implications, Transport Policy, Volume 128, Pages 76-88, ISSN 0967-070X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2022.09.017.
10. Blakeley, T. (2017) The Role of a Professional Society in Promoting the Success in the Maritime Industry, Procedia Engineering, Volume 194, Pages 12-18, ISSN 1877-7058, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.08.110.
11. Fan, L., Fei, J., Schriever, U., Fan, S. (2017) The communicative competence of Chinese seafarers and their employability in the international maritime labour market, Marine Policy, Volume 83, Pages 137-145, ISSN 0308-597X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.05.035.
12. Wróbel, K., Formela, K., Gil, M. (2022) Towards maritime employment and retention policy – A longitudinal study on entrants’ perspectives, Marine Policy, Volume 144, 105232, ISSN 0308-597X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2022.105232.
13. Glen, D. (2008) What do we know about the labour market for seafarers?: A view from the UK, Marine Policy, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 845-855, ISSN 0308-597X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2007.12.006.
14. Silos, J., Piniella, F., Monedero, J., Walliser, J. (2012) Trends in the global market for crews: A case study, Marine Policy, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 845-858, ISSN 0308-597X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2011.12.004.
15. Grebennyk, N., Navrozova, Y., Danchenko, O., Jakubek, P. (2019) Methodical approaches to the management of the crewing company efficiency // Economic Annals-XXI, Vol. 177, Issue 5/6, Pages 114-125.
16. Miagkova, O., Kholodenko, A., Filina-Dawidowicz, L. (2014) Dynamic models of investment’s optimization in maritime education / Problemy Transportu i Logistyki. Koszty i ceny w transporcie. – Uniwersytet Szczecinski, № 26, Pages 43–53, ISSN 1640-6818.

REFERENCES

1. Sharp, W., Alexander, G. & Bailey, J. (1995). Investments. Prentice Hall International, Inc.
2. Bierman, H., Smidt, S. (1992). Economic Analysis of Investment Projects. Macmillan Publishing Company.
3. Stopford, M. (2009). Maritime economics, London: Routledge.
4. Cullinane, K. (2021). Maritime Economics: Organizational Structures, International Encyclopedia of Transportation, Elsevier, Pages 436-442, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102671-7.10082-X.
5. Lai, X., Tao, Y., Wang, F. & Zou, Z. (2019). Sustainability investment in maritime supply chain with risk behavior and information sharing / International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 218, Pages 16-29, ISSN 0925-5273, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2019.02.021.
6. Skålnes, J., Fagerholt, K., Pantuso, G., Wang, X. (2020) Risk control in maritime shipping investments, Omega, Volume 96, 102087, ISSN 0305-0483, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2019.07.003.
7. Shi, X., Jiang, H., Li, H., Xu, D. (2020) Maritime cluster research: Evolutionary classification and future development, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 133, Pages 237-254, ISSN 0965-8564, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2020.01.015.
8. Stavroulakis, P., Papadimitriou, S., Tsioumas, V., Koliousis, I., Riza, E., Kontolatou, E. (2020) Strategic competitiveness in maritime clusters, Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 341-348, ISSN 2213-624X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cstp.2019.10.008.
9. Yang, D., Li, Ch., Li L., Lai, K., Lun, V. (2022) Maritime cluster relatedness and policy implications, Transport Policy, Volume 128, Pages 76-88, ISSN 0967-070X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2022.09.017.
10. Blakeley, T. (2017) The Role of a Professional Society in Promoting the Success in the Maritime Industry, Procedia Engineering, Volume 194, Pages 12-18, ISSN 1877-7058, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.08.110.
11. Fan, L., Fei, J., Schriever, U., Fan, S. (2017) The communicative competence of Chinese seafarers and their employability in the international maritime labour market, Marine Policy, Volume 83, Pages 137-145, ISSN 0308-597X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.05.035.
12. Wróbel, K., Formela, K., Gil, M. (2022) Towards maritime employment and retention policy – A longitudinal study on entrants’ perspectives, Marine Policy, Volume 144, 105232, ISSN 0308-597X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2022.105232.
13. Glen, D. (2008). What do we know about the labour market for seafarers?: A view from the UK, Marine Policy, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 845-855, ISSN 0308-597X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2007.12.006.
14. Silos, J., Piniella, F., Monedero, J. & Walliser, J. (2012). Trends in the global market for crews: A case study, Marine Policy, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 845-858, ISSN 0308-597X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2011.12.004.
15. Grebennyk, N., Navrozova, Y., Danchenko, O. & Jakubek, P. (2019). Methodical approaches to the management of the crewing company efficiency. Economic Annals-XXI, Vol. 177, Issue 5/6, Pages 114-125.
16. Miagkova, O., Kholodenko, A., Filina-Dawidowicz, L. (2014). Dynamic models of investment’s optimization in maritime education. Problemy Transportu i Logistyki. Koszty i ceny w transporcie. – Uniwersytet Szczecinski, № 26, Pages 43–53, ISSN 1640-6818.

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Опубліковано
2022-11-30